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Hendrick Avercamp BiographyHolland Paintings Artist & draftsman
born 1585 - died 1634
Also known as: Hendrick Berentsz. de Stom van Kampen Avercamp, Hendrick Berentsz. de Stomme van Kampen Avercamp, Hendrik Avercamp, Hendrick de Stom tot Campen, Hendrick Stom tot Campen, Hendrick Stom van Campen, Hendrick Stomme van Campen, Hendrick van Campen, Hendrick Vander Stom.
Holland painter, active in Kampen, the most famous exponent of the
Hendrick Avercamp winter landscape. He was deaf and dumb and
known as de Stomme van Kampen (the mute of
Kampen). As one of the first landscape
painters of the 17th-century Dutch school,
Hendrick Avercamp artist links the archaic decorative
conception of Flemish origins and the new
realist and objective ambitions developped
in Holland by Essaias van de Velde and Jan
van Goyen. Hendrick Avercamp paintings are colorful and
lively, with carefully observed skaters, tobogganers, golfers, and pedestrians.
Hendrick Avercamp art enjoyed great popularity and
sold Hendrick Avercamp drawings, many of which are
tinted with water-color, as finished
pictures to be pasted into the albums of
collectors (an outstanding collection is at
Windsor Castle). His nephew and pupil Barent
Avercamp (1612-79) carried on his style in
an accomplished manner.
During his apprenticeship in Amsterdam,
Hendrick Avercamp came under the influence of the
Flemish Holland paintings artists of mannerist landscapes who
were then living in the city (emigrated for
religious reasons at the end of the 16th
century), notably Gillis van Coninxloo
(1544-1607) and David Vinckboons
(1576-1630/1633). It has been suggested on
stylistic grounds that Vinckboons may have
been another of his teachers, but no
documentation of such a relationship exists.
From earliest Hendrick Avercamp paintings, however--the first dated examples of which come from 1601--his style is quite individual, and is most strongly connected not with any Amsterdam trends, but with the Holland paintings of the minor Kampen artist Gerrit van der Horst (1581/1582-1629). By 28 January 1614 Avercamp was back in Kampen, where Hendrick Avercamp seems to have remained until his death in May 1634. There, in relative isolation from the mainstreams of Holland Hendrick Avercamp art, He devoted himself almost entirely to the oil painting of Hendrick Avercamp winter scenes, and specifically to depictions of crowds of people engaging in a wide range of activities on frozen rivers. Such scenes were a popular theme of Holland paintings as early as the 16th century among Pieter I and Pieter II Bruegel, the Grimmer and the Valckenborch, Gillis Mostaert and Sébastien Vranck.
In later years, atmosphere became important
in his work. The horizon was brought down.
As with Van Goyen, circular frames were
progressively replaced with rectangular ones
with a large width, a popular format among
the 1620-30 Holland paintings artists such as Dirck Hals,
Codde, Duck or Duyster.
Hendrick Avercamp artist had no important direct followers, although his nephew Barent Avercamp (c. 1612-1679) was his pupil and imitated him heavily (one of Hendrick Avercamp paintings is in the Louvre, in the Croy collection), as were Arent Arentsz. (called Cabel) (1585/1586-1635) and Dirck Hardenstein II (1620-after 1674). Adam van Breen's style was so close from his that their Holland paintings are often confused (an example is at the Louvre). Christoffel van Berghe (the mysterious C.V.B.) was active in Middelburg and has a similar Hendrick Avercamp art exhibited in the Mayer van den Bergh Museum in Antwerp.
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